1Majid Mahmood, 2Sanwal Aslam, 3Majid Mahmood Tahir, 4Amjad Hussain, 1Samaira Mumtaz, 4Aamish Rafique, 4Asad Aslam, 4Muhammad Mansoor, 4Uzma Habib, 4Tehzeeb ul Hassan, 4Zahid Ahmed Subhani
Affiliation: 1 University of Poonch, Rawalakot , Department of Zoology, 2Jiangus University : Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering and 3University of Poonch, Rawalakot, Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences and 4University of Kotli AJ&K, Department of Zoology


The present study was designed to analyze the water of springs for sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) in four towns of central Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Total dissolved solids (TDS), pH and electric conductivity (EC) were also determined. A total of 110 samples were collected for this purpose. Quantities of all the metals were measured using flame and furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Mean quantities of pH, TDS, and EC were found to be 8.15, 82.36 ppt and 93.35 µS/cm. The mean concentrations of Na, K, Ca and Mg were found to be 8.33, 1.08, 13.83 and 9.72 mg/L respectively. Cd was detected from 75 (68%), Pb from 70 (64%), Ni from 24 (22%), Cu from 84 (76%) and Cr from 83 (75%) samples. Mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu and Cr were found to be 4.33, 2.77, 0.56, 0.39 and 0.43 µg/L respectively. The quantities of all physical parameters and metals were found within the safe limit of drinking water except for three samples of Pb and 40 samples of Cd which had slightly higher concentrations than the safe limit of drinking water.



:Spring Water; Azad Jammu and Kashmir; Heavy Metals; Atomic Absorption Spectrometer

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